The researchers have discovered the carbohydrate molecule that is causing infection in the human cells and leading to coronavirus. The findings will be helpful to treat Covid-19 and also prevent the spread.
The molecule that is on the outer surfaces of the cells lungs and that the SARS-CoV-2 virus is ACE2 that uses it to enter these cells and infect the respiratory system.
The carbohydrate molecule that is found by the researchers is called Heparan sulphate.
Without the aid of the heparan sulphate coronavirus can’t infect ACE2 molecule. The carbohydrate heparan sulphate is a co-receptor for the viral approach.
Jeffrey Esko, a professor at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine in the US said, “ACE2 is only part of the story. It isn’t the whole picture.”
The scientist team that are involved in the new finding proved two ways that can decrease the efficacy of SARS-CoV-2 to contaminate human cells cultivated in the lab by about 80 to 90 per cent.
The initial method runs by eliminating heparan sulphate with enzymes, and later heparin that is a form of heparan sulphate is used to attract the coronavirus from human cells.
Heparin is already used as the medication to halt and treat blood clots. The researchers revealed that the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.
The team discovered that when heparin is connected, the receptor-binding domain starts to increase the binding to ACE2.
They said that the virus must attach both heparan sulphate and ACE2 to enter the human lung cells that are grown in a laboratory.
The researcher’s team discovered that enzymes that separate heparin sulphate from cell covers prevent SARS-CoV-2 from entering into the cells.
The treatment with heparin prevented virus, as per the researchers.
They said, The heparin treatment is given to the patients, even when it removed the anticoagulant section of the protein.