Malaria big problem in India and here’s how its vaccine is a hope

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New malaria vaccine by a group of researches will be a hope for India’s critical need for a medicine to eradicate the deadly disease. 

In India, there are about 2 million confirmed malaria cases and 1,000 deaths recorded every year and the WHO South-East Asia Regional Office estimates 15 million cases and 20,000 deaths.  About  77% of all malaria cases in Southeast Asia has registered in India alone. Nine Anopheline mosquitoes varieties are the main source for the spread of malaria in the country. 

India’s horrific disease “Malaria” 

In 1947, about 75 million malaria cases were recorded in a population of 330 million. Malaria infections fell dramatically to 100,000 in 1964 while the extermination period in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Malaria, on the other hand, made a comeback. Malaria outbreaks had reached 6.4 million by 1976. The proportion of P. falci-parum has steadily increased to approximately 50% in recent times.

According to the WHO’s World Malaria Report (WMR) 2020, which estimates malaria cases around the world based on statistical predictions, India has made significant strides in reducing the malaria burden. India is the only nation with a strong endemic population that saw a decrease of 17.6% in 2019 relative to 2018. The Annual Parasitic Incidence (API) decreased by 27.6% in 2018 as compared to 2017 and 18.4% in 2019 as compared to 2018.  Starting from  2012, India has maintained an API of less than one.

India has also managed to reduce the number of cases in the country, from about 20 million to around 6 million. Around 2000 and 2019, there was a 71.8 percent reduction in malaria infections and a 73.9 percent drop in deaths. 

Also Read: Pregnant women are 20 times more likely to die because of Covid 19: What’s the situation in India

New Malaria Vaccine 

According to British scientists, a new vaccine for malaria was shown to be 77% successful in child trials, which may be a game-changer in the fight against the lethal mosquito-borne disease. 

The Matrix-M vaccine for malaria, developed by the University of Oxford’s Jenner Institute, was shown to be 77% successful in a clinical trial in Burkina Faso, where 450 infants were vaccinated in 2019 and followed up for a year, according to the Oxford researchers. 

This is the first vaccine for malaria to beat the UN’s World Health Organization’s deadline of 2030 for research to explore a vaccine with a 75% effectiveness rate.

In association with the Serum Institute of India and the US pharmaceutical firm Novavax, a larger “Phase 3” study affecting 4,800 children will now be conducted in four African nations. 

The research findings marked “a perfect day” in the global battle against malaria, according to Professor Adrian Hill of the Jenner Institute, which developed the coronavirus vaccine now marketed worldwide by Anglo-Swedish pharma giant AstraZeneca. 

Who are at higher risk?

The Serum Institute has committed to produce at least 200 million doses a year, and has the ability to have a significant public health effect” if it is approved. 

The vaccine was given to 450 babies and toddlers aged five to 17 months in a study involving. Alternatively, a rabies vaccine was given to a test sample. After a year, the babies were given a booster injection.

The clinical trial’s findings were published in a pre-print paper on the website of The Lancet, a British medical journal.

Where is Malaria most commonly found in India? 

The more number of malaria cases are registered in India’s eastern and central regions, as well as states with vast forest, and tribal regions. Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and some north-eastern states like Tripura, Meghalaya, and Mizoram are among these states.

 How is New Malaria Vaccine a hope for Indians?

Having a lot of Malaria cases in the nation the most wanted vaccine will help in the disease in the deadly disease.

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